Simply put, glutathione (GSH) is the body's
master antioxidant. It is a small protein produced naturally in
our cells when certain required elements are present. It functions both as
an antioxidant and an antitoxin and is a major defense system against
illness and aging. Our glutathione level actually indicates our state of
health and can predict longevity. Although there are more than 60,000
published papers on the beneficial effects of glutathione replacement, it
is still largely ignored by mainstream medicine. In the near future the
importance of glutathione will be widely recognized because it has the
ability to boost the immune system and fight off the damage of free
radicals on the cells.
Modern research has shown that individuals who have low levels of
glutathione are susceptible to chronic illness. Decreased levels
of glutathione can be brought about by continual stress upon the immune
system. As we now know, a lowered immune system can bring about illness
and disease. This is a ferocious cycle. While you need glutathione for a
productive immune system, a weakened immune system hampers the production
Glutathione has been shown to slow down the
aging process, detoxify and improve liver function, strengthen the immune
system, and reduce the chances of developing cancer. Glutathione also
works to help improve mental functions, increase energy, improve
concentration, permit increased exercise, and improve heart and lung
function - just to name a few.
Glutathione is produced in the human liver and plays a key role in
intermediary metabolism, immune response and health, though many of its
mechanisms and much of its behavior await further medical understanding.
It is also known as gamma-Glutamylcysteineglycine and GHS. It is a small
protein composed of three amino acids, cysteine, glutamic acid
and glyceine. Glutatione is found in two forms, a monomerthat is a
single molecule of the protein, and a dimmer that is two of the single
molecules joined together. The monomer is sometimes called reduced
glutathione, while the dimmer is also called oxidized glutathione. The
monomer is the active form of glutathione. Oxidized glutathione is broken
down to the single molecule by an enzyme called glutathione reductase.
Glutathione, in purified extracted form, is a white powder that is
soluble in water and in alcohol. It is found naturally in many fruits,
vegetables, and meats. However, absorption rates of glutathione from food
sources in the human gastrointestinal tract are low.
Glutathione was first isolated in yeast in 1929. Its
metabolism in the body was described in 1984, and its role in cancer
treatment dates from 1984.
Glutathione is a major antioxidant highly active in human lungs and
many other organ systems and tissues. It has many reported uses. It has a
critical role in protecting cells from oxidative stress and
maintaining the immune system. Higher blood levels of glutathione have
been associated with better health in elderly people, but the exact
association between glutathione and the aging process has not been
Among the uses that have been reported for glutathione are:
- treatment of poisoning, particularly heavy metal poisons
- treatment of idiopathic pulmonary firbosis
- increasing the effectiveness and reducing the toxicity of cis-platinum,
a chemo drug used to treat breast cancer
- treating Parkinson's disease
- lowering blood pressure in patients with diabetes
- increasing male sperm counts in humans and animals
- treatment of liver cancer
- treatment of sickle cell anemia
Claims made about glutathione have included that it will increase
energy, improve concentration, slow aging, and protect the skin.
The importance of glutathione is generally recognized, although its
specific functions and appropriate clinical use remain under study.
Similarly, because ingested glutathione has little or no effect on
intracellular glutathione levels, there are questions regarding the
optimal method for raising the intracellular levels.
In addition to ongoing studies of the role of glutathione in cancer and
cancer therapy, there are currently clinical trials of glutathione in
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The U. S. National Cancer Institute
has included glutathione in a study to determine whether nutritional
factors could inhibit development of some types of cancer.
European researchers, with support from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation,
are examining the potential uses of inhaled glutathione in cystic
fibrosis. Some physicians also use inhaled glutathione in treating airway
restriction and asthma. Other studies are investigating whether
administration of alpha-lipoic acid, a material that can elevate
intracellular glutathione, may be beneficial in restoring the immune
system in AIDS patients.
Although glutathione is marketed as a nutritional
supplement, it does not appear that glutathione supplements actually
increase the levels of glutathione inside cells. In human studies, oral
doses of glutathione had little effect in raising blood levels. Further,
glutathione is so widely distributed in common foods that supplements are
not normally required. Supplements of vitamin C are more effective
at increasing intracellular glutathione than taking oral glutathione
supplements. Oral supplements of whey protein and of alpha-lipoic acid
appear to help restore intracellular levels of glutathione.
Glutathione is available as capsules of 50, 100, and 250 milligrams. It
is also included in many multivitamin and multi-nutrient formulations.
At this time, the only established precautions are
sensitivity to any of the inactive ingredients in the preparations of
glutathione or the products used to stimulate glutathione levels. This is
a discussion of glutathione, not C and whey. There is some new literature
that suggests supplementing it may be helpful to some cancer patients, but
detrimental to others.
There are no established side effects to glutathione or
to the substances used to elevate glutathione levels.
Training & certification
Glutathione has been classified as an orphan drug for
treatment of AIDS. For this purpose, medical licensure is required.
Glutathione has been given intravenously for amelioration of the side
cisplatin therapy. Specific training is required to order, prepare,
start, and monitor intravenous therapy. No specific training is required
to use glutathione or the compounds which have been reported to raise
glutathione levels for other purposes.
In 1994, Dr. Robert H. Keller founded The BIODORON
Institute of Advanced Medicine, a state-of-the-art medical clinic
specializing in cutting edge treatment for immune system disorders and
After reviewing subject lab results for years, Dr. Keller noticed a trend.
He kept seeing significantly low levels of uric acid in subjects with
immune disorders. He decided to explore this finding, and his initial
research concluded that uric acid is the last antioxidant at the body's
disposal when all the normal antioxidants have been exhausted.
As Dr. Keller has always been a strong advocate of nutrition, he went back
in the literature, seeking the answer to one question: If uric acid is the
body's last defense, then what is the first? His investigation led him to
a substance called glutathione.
Glutathione (GSH): The Master Antioxidant
Dr. Keller discovered that the most prevalent, powerful
and multifunctional antioxidant in the human body, employed by every
organ, is reduced glutathione.
Glutathione (GSH) is a small protein produced naturally in our cells if
the requisite precursors are present. It functions both as an antioxidant
and an antitoxin and is a major defense system against illness and aging.
Our glutathione level actually indicates our state of health and can
predict longevity. It has been suggested that in the future, GSH levels
will be closely monitored. There are over 60,000 medical articles
currently published on GSH, yet most health professionals have only a
vague idea of its significance. In the near future, the importance of
glutathione will be widely recognized.
After learning of the importance of GSH, Dr. Keller
needed to test the hypothesis that the levels of GSH in subjects with
immune disorders were, in fact, severely diminished. To get a current and
accurate gauge of a subject's GSH level, Dr. Keller knew the test must
measure GSH inside of lymphocytes (activated cells); however, no such lab
Using a state-of-the-art medical laboratory, Dr. Keller and his team of
scientists developed a proprietary lab test to measure levels of GSH
inside the lymphocytes.
The tests confirmed the hypothesis. People who are stressed, aging,
lacking sleep, or with any prolonged illness utilize glutathione at an
accelerated rate resulting in decreased bodily stores, weakened defenses,
and increased risk of illnesses including accelerated aging.
It was clear that the GSH levels needed to be
replenished in these subjects. But how? Glutathione is produced naturally
from three amino acids: glycine, glutamine, and cysteine. These essential
precursors of GSH must be able to make it from the mouth to the gut, then
through the cells walls and subsequently the mitochondrial membrane. There
lies the challenge.
Unfortunately, we can't raise our body's GSH level with ordinary foods or
pure L-glutathione. Even though glutathione is present in many fruits,
vegetables and meats, this protein is instantly broken down during
digestion into its three amino acids. Cysteine, or N-acetylcysteine (NAC),
is the most important of these precursors and is the main limiting factor
necessary for the body to manufacture GSH. Alone in the gut after
digestion, cysteine is treated as a free radical and rapidly oxidized.
Consequently, only a very small percentage reaches our bloodstream and
Furthermore, GSH is always in great demand and is rapidly consumed, so any
GSH that is made will be used up quickly making it even more difficult to
increase this level.
The Solution: MaxGXL.
After years of research and development, Dr. Keller and
the Max International scientific team developed MaxGXL, a product that
contains the necessary components of glutathione that when absorbed into
the body, stimulate the body's own production of glutathione to be used by